Shreyans Water Engineers
Shreyans Water Engineers
Sola, Ahmedabad, Gujarat
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Purification Chemicals

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water. The goal of this process is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human consumption (drinking water) but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including meeting the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications. In general the methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon, chemical processes such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.

The purification process of water may reduce the concentration of particulate matter including suspended particles, parasites, bacteria, algae, viruses, fungi; and a range of dissolved and particulate material derived from the surfaces that water may have made contact with after falling as rain.

The standards for drinking water quality are typically set by governments or by international standards. These standards will typically set minimum and maximum concentrations of contaminants for the use that is to be made of the water.

Activated Carbon

Activated Carbon
  • Activated Carbon
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Approx. Price: Rs 45 / Kilogram(s)
As an affluent name of this domain, we hold expertise in presenting high quality Activated Carbon. This activated carbon is manufactured using coconut shell. This substance is used in purifying water and air by adsorbing desulfating, and recovering of solvent and steam catalyst, and catalyst carriers. Our engineers ensure to set up and provide an incredible carbon substance to the clients. Besides this, clients can get the carbon from us in form of tablets in bulk quantity at industry leading rates.   

Features:


  • Rapid processing and trouble-free reacting
  • Collecting radioactive substances and micro organisms
  • Efficient for industrial filters  

Other Details:


  • Pharmaceuticals & Bulk Drug Industries.
  • Fertilizer unit & Petroleum Refineries as a catalyst carrier.
  • Purification & De-colourisation of Plasticizers, Glycerin, Paraffins, Waxes, Fine Chemicals, Dyes & Intermediates, Organic Acid, Glucose, Dextrose and lactose solutions, Deodorization of Gelatine and liquefied petroleum jelly.
  • Bleaching & Deodorizing of Vegetable Oil, Edible Oil & Fats.
  • Sugar Industries & Thermal and Nuclear Power Station.
  • Breweries and Wine making industries.
  • Pollution Control Equipment & Electro Plating Chemicals.

Applications:

  • Effluent Treatment Plant.
  • Waste Water Treatment for Reduction in the Level of BOD & COD.
  • Purification of Drinking Water & Industrial Gases.
  • Catalysts in Chemical Metallurgical Industries & Petroleum Refineries.
  • Adsorption of Dissolved Organic Matter.
  • Water & Gas Mask Filters.
  • Breweries & Distilleries.
  • Swimming Pools & Soft Drink Plant for De-chlorination.
  • Solvent & Gold Recovery.

Specifications:

Appearance

Black Granules

Particle Size

Any sieve size viz. 4/8, 8/16, 12/30, 16/30, 8/30, 6/16, 4/16

Iodine Adsorption

500 mg/gm±25

750 mg/gm±25

850 mg/gm±50

950 mg/gm±50

1050mg/gm±50

PH

9 to 10

9 to 10

9 to 10

9 to 10

9 to 10

Moisture

5 %

5 %

5 %

5 %

5 %

Total Surface

Area

500 m2/gm

750 m2/gm

850 m2/gm

950 m2/gm

1050 m2/gm

Bulk Density

0.55±0.05gm/cc

0.53±0.05gm/cc

0.51±0.05gm/cc

0.50±0.05gm/cc

0.48±0.05gm/cc

Ball Pan

Hardness no.

90

85

80

80

70

Ash Content

5 % Max

5 % Max

5 % Max

5 % Max

5 % Max

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Additional Information:

  • Item Code: SWE-AC
  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),D/A,D/P,T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Minimum Order Quantity: 0 Kilogram(s)
  • Packaging Details: Polyethylene bags of 25 kg/bag
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Salt Tablet

Salt Tablet
  • Salt Tablet
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Approx. Price: Rs 8 / Kilogram(s)

As a trust worthy organization of this domain, we are committed to offer our clients a superior quality assortment of Salt Tablet. This tablet is processed according to the industry standards of FDA and other government agencies. At our manufacturing unit, we developed the tablet in round and oval shape in bulk quantity. The offered tablet is used in various industrial and domestic wastewater treatment plants. Apart from this, clients can get the tablet from us at cost effective rates.  

Features:

  • Better cleaning capacity
  • Conventional operating
  • Low blocking rate  

Specifications:
Mechanical Parameters

Weight, grm8 ± 18
Diameter, mm22 ± 122
Height, mm11 ± 111
Mass portion of sodium chloride,% min.99.50 ± 199.5
Moisture, % w /w
0.40% max
Mass portion of calcium-ion, % max.0.06 ± 0.030.05 - 0.06
Mass Portion of magnesium-ion, % max.0.06 ± 0.030.05 - 0.06
Mass portion of sulphate-ion, % max.0.2 ± 0.20.2
Mass portion of insoluble substances in water, % max.0.06 ± 0.030.05 - 0.06
Iodine, mg /kgAs requiredAs required
PFCmg /kg< 10ppm.
Femg /kg< 5ppm.
Heavy Metalsmg /kg< 5ppm.
Alkalinity (as Na2Co3)Mg /Kg0.1 % max.
pH
7.5 +/- 0.5.
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Additional Information:

  • Item Code: SWE-Salt
  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),D/A,D/P,T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Minimum Order Quantity: 0 Kilogram(s)
  • Packaging Details: 25Kg in HDPE / PP Bags
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Wastewater Treatment Chemical

Wastewater Treatment Chemical
  • Wastewater Treatment Chemical
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Approx. Price: Rs 250 / Litre(s)
We are leading manufacturer and supplier of Wastewater Treatment Chemical and we are looking buyer of Wastewater Treatment Chemical from all over india.

Contaminated water contains particles of different sizes which can be classified as dissolved (< 0.08 μm), colloidal (0.08 - 1 µm), supracolloidal (> 100 - 100 mm) and settleable (> 100 µm)

The type of treatment selected depends on the size of particles present in the wastewater. In practice, treatment efficiency also depends on particle size.

Solids of the size that are visible to the naked eye can be separated either by settling under the influence of gravity or by flotation, depending on the relative densities of solids and water. They may also be easily separated by filtration. However, very fine particles of a colloidal nature (called colloids, size < 1 µm) which have high stability are significant pollutants. The reason for this stability is that these particles have electrostatic surface charges of the same sign (usually negative). This means that repulsive forces are created between them, preventing their aggregation and subsequent settling. It has therefore proved impossible to separate them by settling or flotation. It is not possible to separate these solids by filtration because they pass through any filter. However, separation by SWE-chemical treatments is possible.

SWE-chemical treatment of wastewater focuses primarily on the separation of colloidal particles. This is achieved through the addition of chemicals (called coagulants and flocculants). These change the physical state of the colloids allowing them to remain in an indefinitely stable form and therefore form into particles or flocs with settling properties 
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Additional Information:

  • Packaging Details: Standard
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Ferric Chloride (Liquid)

Ferric Chloride (Liquid)
  • Ferric Chloride (Liquid)
  • Ferric Chloride (Liquid)
  • Ferric Chloride (Liquid)
  • Ferric Chloride (Liquid)
  • Ferric Chloride (Liquid)
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Approx. Price: Rs 5 / Kilogram
Since our inception, our firm is affianced to introduce a premium quality array of Ferric Chloride (Liquid). This chemical is found in powder and liquid state. Clients can get the chemicals as per the need from us. The offered chemicals are generally used for wastewater treatment plants and systems. Offered chemical is processed using high quality substances and clinically approved methods. RO, filters and various other wastewater treatment system uses the offered liquid or powder. Clients can get the chloride from us in bulk at industry leading rates.

Features:


  • ECO-friendly and safe
  • Easy solvent
  • Better solutions and quick treatment
Applications:

  • Ferric Chloride is manufactured for both municipal and industrial water treatment. Being an iron-based coagulant and having only trace amounts of aluminum, it is widely used for the clarification of drinking water.
  • Ferric Chloride is very effective as a coagulant in oily water clarification. It is excellent for turbidity control, as well as the removal of phosphorus, color, TOC’s and suspended solids. Ferric Chloride is widely used for sludge dewatering, as well, resulting in volume reduction. It is very effective at removing arsenic and selenium.
  • Other Specifications:
  • Formula: FeCl3
  • Molar mass: 162.2 g/mol
  • Density: 2.9 g/cm³
  • Melting point: 306 °C
  • Boiling point: 315 °C
  • Soluble in: Properties of water
  • IUPAC ID: Iron trichloride, Iron(III) chloride

Specifications:

Concentration (þ 3)

28 – 33 % by Wt.

Concentration (þ 2)

<0.5 % by Wt.

Specific Gravity

1.35 – 1.6

Free Acid

<0.5 % by Wt.

pH

<2.0

Appearance

Dark Maroon

Freezing Point

<0°F

Free Chlorine

<0.05 % by Wt.

Nitrate as NO

<0.1 % by Wt.

Alkalis

<0.3 % by Wt.

Copper as Cu

<0.05 % by Wt.

Zinc as Zn

<0.01 % by Wt.


Other Details:

  • DOT Classification: Ferric Chloride Solution
  • Hazard Class: 8
  • DOT ID Number: UN 2582
  • Packing Group: III
  • RQ = 1000 Lbs.
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Additional Information:

  • Item Code: SWE-FeCl3
  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),D/A,D/P,T/T (Bank Transfer),Other
  • Delivery Time: Immediately
  • Packaging Details: Standard, Drum, IBC Container
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Antiscalant

Antiscalant
  • Antiscalant
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Approx. Price: Rs 190 / Litre(s)

Antiscalants RO Chemicals:

Without RO chemicals, even the highest quality membranes begin to foul after prolonged use, requiring cleaning or replacement. This process is not only time consuming, but can be extremely expensive. antiscalant is used to process very poor quality feed water at very high rates of recovery, which lessens the load on your membranes, making them last longer. When used properly, antiscalant chemical extends the time between membrane cleanings from a few weeks to years in some cases. Antiscalant and other RO chemicals dramatically increase the lifespan of your membranes, making them last longer and saving you money. In some circumstances, antiscalant can maintain a single set of membranes indefinitely. Without antiscalant, membrane systems would not be successful in serving the water treatment industry.

When it comes to troubleshooting reverse osmosis membranes, identifying issues that cause increases in pressure or decreases in product quality can be very difficult. The great thing about antiscalant is that it solves a number of problems simultaneously, saving you headache and preserving your reverse osmosis membranes. As a general cleaning and quality enhancing purification product, antiscalant is the go-to problem solver that ensures the quality and productivity you deserve.

Antiscalant is a great product that can be used on almost any water without needing to pay for a water chemistry report. For small systems treating less than 150 gpm feed, we suggest 3-5 ppm doses to begin. antiscalant is also an excellent choice for larger systems with good pilot test results or stable operating history.

Dosing Guidelines
The typical dosing range for antiscalant is between 2 to 10 ppm. If dilution is required, antiscalant should be diluted with de-mineralized water or RO permeate. If neither of these water sources is available, softened water may be substituted. The dilution for antiscalant should not exceed 10% by weight.

Chemical Specifications

Appearance:

Clear-yellow liquid

Odor:

Odorless

pH (2% solution):

5.0 - 6.5

Specific gravity @ 20°C:

1.1 ± 0.05

Packaging and Storage

Standard regional pack sizes are listed below. Custom packaging can be provided worldwide to meet customer needs. Information on drum-less or bulk tanker delivery is available upon request.

Packaging Formats

 

Americas

EMEA

Pails

45 lbs. (5 gal)

21 kg. (18.9 L)

Drums

500 lbs. (55 gal)

227 kg. (208 L)

IBC’s (totes)

2500 lbs. (275 gal)

1130 kg. (1041 L)

Performance:

  • Antiscalant is a powerful inhibitor against a variety of scales including
  • Highly effective at low dose rates in a wide range of feed water types and pH ranges.
  • Compatible with polyelectrolyte’s
  • Provides both scale and inorganic fouling control.
  • Compatible with all membrane types
Application:
  • Water Recycling & Reuse
  • Power and Energy
  • Mining
  • Groundwater Remediation
  • Food & Drinking Water
  • Desalination

 

 

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Additional Information:

  • Item Code: SWE-Atiscalant
  • Minimum Order Quantity: 50 Litre(s)
  • Port of Dispatch: Mumbai-India
  • Delivery Time: 1-2 Weeks
  • Packaging Details: Standard
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Chlorine Tablets

Chlorine Tablets
  • Chlorine Tablets
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Approx. Price: Rs 230 / Kilogram(s)

CHLORINE TABLETS are cost effective and easy to use. The tablets are based on chlorinated isocyanurates to provide consistent chlorine delivery.

TABLET WEIGHTS & PACKING

Tablet Weight

Tablet Dia(mm)

Water Disinfection potential (ltr of pack water treated per tablet)

Pack Size

Master Packing

0.2 g

7.5 

40 ltr

1 kg

box

Carton

with

12 x 1 kg

Boxes, 50 kg drum

0.5 g

10

100 ltr

1 g

12.5

200 ltr

3 g

21

500 ltr

5 g

24

1000 ltr

7 g

24

1400 ltr

9 g

30

1650 ltr

Applications:
PUBLIC UTILITY

  • Disinfecting water for drinking, bathing, cooking, etc.
  • Sanitation of water during natural calamity period
  • Water Sanitation for public utility
  • Disinfection of industrial water pretreatment

DAIRY

  • Product being used by leading dairy firms. They use different ppm at different places but you can assure them, that they can use 50% less ppm than what they are using at present with liquid chlorine or bleaching powder.

HOSPITALS

  • Rinsing bed linen
  • Mopping
  • Rinsing surgical equipments
  • Human spills
  • Infants nappy, feeding bottle, etc

HOTELS

  • Floor and bed linen
  • Drinking water and water for utilities
  • Pre-Chlorination of R.O feed water
  • Cleaning utensils, cutlery and crockery etc
  • Disinfection Swimming pool

AQUACULTURE

  • Cleaning Shrimps
  • Equipments
  • Nets
  • Feed trays

ADVANTAGES:

  • Stable for more than 2 years
  • Accurate: always yielding the stated level of available chlorine.
  • Convenient and easy to use. Just add to water and allow to dissolve. The speed of dissolution can be enhanced by the use of warm water and/or by stirring.
  • Economical in use: the tablets provide an easy to use dilution system that eradicates the over-dosing that is common with liquid bleach and more importantly minimizes any under-dosing potential.
  • Easy to store and distribute - no spillages, no leaks.
  • Much safer to use than liquid bleach - reduced risk of accident and personal injury.
  • Less corrosive than liquid bleach. Tests have shown that nearly all metals in common use are more readily corroded by liquid bleach than by CHLORINE Na tablets.
  • Possess greater biocidal properties, strength for strength, than liquid bleach, especially in the presence of soiling.

Handling

  • Keep the container closed when not in use. Store in cool, dry and well-ventilated area, away from fire and heat. Use dry, clean clothing when handling Tablets. Avoid breathing dust, and do not bring in contact with eyes or skin. Wear rubber or plastic gloves and safety glasses.
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Additional Information:

  • Item Code: SWT-CHLORINE
  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),D/A,D/P,T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Packaging Details: Corrugated Box, Drum Packing, Standard Box
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Bio Chemicals

Bio Chemicals
  • Bio Chemicals
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Approx. Price: Rs 350 / Kilogram(s)

“The pollution load on major water bodies has increased over the years due to industrialization and urbanization. Use of water for irrigation, drinking, power and other purposes compound the challenge.”

TO OVER COME THIS CRISIS…

In most developing economies today, the very factors responsible for economic growth, have also unfortunately, been the root cause of environmental degradation. Mass scale industrialization, the intensification of agriculture, rapid population growth, urbanization and rising energy use has taken a grave tool on our ecosystems. There is, therefore a dire need for effective environmental management. Foremost among the many technologies and strategies that have been developed to address this crisis, is Bioculture.

Application:

  • Industrial waste water treatment (ETP)
  • Municipality waste water treatment (STP)
  • House hold Sanitation
  • Waste water bodies (lakes and ponds)

Benefits of “Bioculture”:

This is the most powerful tool to carry out effective Environmental Management and has become the natural choice for carrying out waste treatment.

  • It reduces the BOD, COD, etc. of the effluent / lake, pond water.
  • AB suppresses the foul odour from the waste water.
  • Improves response to shock load and cold weather operations during winter.
  • AB technology will immediately begin feeding on the organic matter and multiplying creating inthe process, enzymes (bio) that curb pollution.
  • AB technology increases dissolved oxygen levels, creates a larger zone of habitation for microscopic animal communities. In addition with this technology one can also slow the tapping of phosphorus from bottom sediments.
  • Introducing AB technology in waste/polluted water decrease the algal growth and algal pollution.
  • AB technology cuts off sediment nutrients as a potential source of nutrients through the application of bokashi ball.
  • AB technology is the term used for a restoration technique that shows some promise. In this technique attempts are made to successful; reduce the total pollution load from the water body.
  • Reduction of Foul odor, no odor in treated water.
  • Suppression of Total Coli& E Coli.
  • Neutralization of Waste water.
  • Reduction of chemicals such as alum, lime, chlorine etc.
  • Reduction in power consumption in ETP & STP.Reduction in sludge volume& no further treatment is required for sludge obtained.
  • It helps reduce pollution caused by crude oil.
  • Improves recovery from nitrification.
  • It can be applied to any septic tanks.
  • Brings about bio-augmentation
  • No structural changes are required for implementing the technology. It can be easily applied into an existing ETP/STP and is equally effective for any other size of operations be it rivers, dams, lakes, hotels or private homes.
  • Eco friendly; make environment healthy& fresh- No need to use toxic chemicals for sanitation.
  • Reduction in Sewage effluent parameters as per as PCB norms.
  • Make the effluent disposable/reuse.
  • Remove foul odor from effluent completely.
  • Reduce running cost of STP.

RESULTS:

Septic Tanks – Reduces maintenance costs and frequency of emptying by up to 50% • Cleaning of Septic Tanks no longer a nightmare (A pleasant experience) • Eliminates foul smell

Sewerage & Effluent treatment plants – increase beneficial bacteria count, speed up breakdown. RESULT: Increased capacity of the plant

RECOMMENDED DOSES FOR BEST RESULTS Shock treatment:

  • 0.05- 0.01% plant capacity
  • Monthly treatment: 0.025 – 0.05 % plant capacity
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Additional Information:

  • Item Code: SWE_Bioculture
  • Pay Mode Terms: L/C (Letter of Credit),D/A,D/P,T/T (Bank Transfer)
  • Delivery Time: Immediate
  • Packaging Details: Standard
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Boiler Chemicals

Boiler Chemicals
  • Boiler Chemicals
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Approx. Price: Rs 200 / Litre(s)
We are leading manufacturer of Boiler chemicals and looking buyer of Boiler Chemicals from all over india.

SHREYANS WATER ENGINEERS specialize in steam boiler water treatment. SWE is a leading manufacturer and supplier of comprehensive range of boiler water treatment chemicals, dosing systems, and water softeners and offer high quality on-site technical service. When water is converted to steam it expands in volume into many times, thus subsequently steam moves the energy and heat where it is wanted, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion. Consequently it increases energy costs and can lead to downgrade steam, reduce productivity, shorter plant life. An inadequately treated boiler is a potential bomb and exposure to steam will cause severe burns and scalding and may accelerate more serious complexities at plant and operation.

In order to keep plant operating safely, efficiently and economically, SWE has developed a comprehensive range of products and technical services to protect boiler and the whole steam system including the feed-tank, feed-lines, steam and condensate system.

 

  • Oxygen scavengers to prevent corrosion
  • High grade Polymer based Anti scalant to prevent scale formation.
  • Alkalinity and pH control.
  • Phosphate Treatments.
  • Polymer sludge conditioners
  • Amine condensate line treatments
  • Resin cleaners and RO Anti-scalant chemicals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The persistence of SWE boiler water treatment is to render cost effective inhibition to the boiler and steam system against corrosion and scale formation and help to uphold steam pureness and desired quality.

Boiler scale is caused by the precipitation of insoluble salts of calcium and magnesium at high temperature. As a result, it produces a hard layer on the boiler tubes, which severely reduces the heat transfer, which is critically unwanted, thus it greatly reduces the efficiency of the boiler and instigates the boiler tubes to overheat, so that in an extreme situation they can rupture the tubes & lines with very risky consequences.

Formation of scale deposits is avoided initially by removing as much hardness from the make-up water as possible ( through water softener), and then by dosing SWE boiler water chemicals such as Scale preventive and polymer sludge conditioners viz; SWE range of chemicals. These SWE Boiler treatment chemicals ensure that any hardness Slipped-in boiler feed water is converted into a floating sludge, which can be removed by boiler blow down and so doesn’t form any hard scale on the heat transferring surface.

Similarly, Corrosion in low-pressure boilers can be affected by dissolved oxygen, acidity and excessive alkalinity. SWE Boiler Water treatment therefore should remove the dissolved oxygen and retains the boiler water with the appropriate pH and alkalinity levels. The oxygen content of water reduces with intensifying high temperature. it proves therefore that basically increasing the boiler feed water temperature, and allowing the oxygen plenty of chance to get-away, will suggestively decrease the threat of oxygen corrosion at boiler system. A correctly designed feed water container is consequently the primary protection in protecting the boiler from oxygen corrosion. The feed water tank temperature should be maintained at a minimum of 80°C. This could be attained by recollecting as much as hot condensate is possible and by steam injection at feed water tank. A feed temperature of 85–90°C is accepted, but the plant should evade increasing the temperature too high, since it will support other damage in the metallurgy of feed pump.

 
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Chemical Dosing System

Chemical Dosing System
  • Chemical Dosing System
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  • Dosing generally applies to feeding chemicals or medicines in small quantities into a process fluid or to a living being at intervals or to atmosphere at intervals to give sufficient time for the chemical or medicine to react or show the results.
  • In the case of human beings or animals the word dose is generally used but in the case of inanimate objects the word dosing is used. The term dose titration, referring to stepwise titration of doses until a desired level of effect is reached, is common in medicine.
  • The word dosing is very commonly used by engineers in thermal power stations, in water treatment, in any industry where steam is being generated, and in building services for heating and cooling water treatment. Dosing procedures are also in vogue in textile and similar industries where chemical treatment is involved.
    Commercial swimming pools also require chemical dosing in order to control pH balance, chlorine level, and other such water quality criteria. Modern swimming pool plant will have bulk storage of chemicals held in separate dosing tanks, and will have automated controls and dosing pumps to top up the various chemicals as required to control the water quality.

    In a power station treatment chemicals are injected or fed to boiler and also to feed and make up water under pressure, but in small dosages or rate of injection. The feeding at all places is done by means of small capacity dosing pumps specially designed for the duty demanded.

    In building services the water quality of various pumped fluid systems, including for heating, cooling, and condensate water, will be regularly checked and topped up with chemicals manually as required to suit the required water quality. Most commonly inhibitors will be added to protect the pipework and components against corrosion, or a biocide will be added to stop the growth of bacteria in lower temperature systems. The required chemicals will be added to the fluid system by use of a dosing pot; a multi-valved chamber in which the chemical can be added, and then introduced to the fluid system in a controlled manner.

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Bacteria Culture

Bacteria Culture
  • Bacteria Culture
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  • A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both.
  • A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both.
  •  It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium. For example, a throat culture is taken by scraping the lining of tissue in the back of the throat and blotting the sample into a medium to be able to screen for harmful microorganisms, such as Streptococcus pyogenes, the causative agent of strep throat.Furthermore, the term culture is more generally used informally to refer to "selectively growing" a specific kind of microorganism in the lab.

    Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. It is often essential to isolate a pure culture of microorganisms. A pure (or axenic) culture is a population of cells or multicellular organisms growing in the absence of other species or types. A pure culture may originate from a single cell or single organism, in which case the cells are genetic clones of one another.

    For the purpose of gelling the microbial culture, the medium of agarose gel (agar) is used. Agar is a gelatinous substance derived from seaweed. A cheap substitute for agar is guar gum, which can be used for the isolation and maintenance of thermophiles.

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Coagulants and Flocculants

Coagulants and Flocculants
  • Coagulants and Flocculants
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  • What is the coagulation and flocculation?
  1. Coagulation and flocculation processes are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water. The suspended particles vary considerably in source, composition charge, particle size, shape, and density.

  • What is meant by flocculation?
  1. In colloid chemistry, flocculation refers to the process by which fine particulates are caused to clump together into a floc. The floc may then float to the top of the liquid (creaming), settle to the bottom of the liquid (sedimentation), or be readily filtered from the liquid.

  • What is the purpose of coagulation in water treatment?
  1. In coagulation, we add a chemical such as alum which produces positive charges to neutralize the negative charges on the particles. Then the particles can stick together, forming larger particles which are more easily removed.
  • What is a flocculating agent and how does it work?
  1. Flocculants, or flocculating agents (also known as flocking agents), are chemicals that promote flocculation by causing colloids and other suspended particles in liquids to aggregate, forming a floc. Flocculants are used in water treatment processes to improve the sedimentation or filterability of small particles.
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Chemical-Reverse Osmosis

Chemical-Reverse Osmosis
  • Chemical-Reverse Osmosis
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  • Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules, and larger particles from drinking water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property, that is driven by chemical potential differences of the solvent, a thermodynamic parameter.
  • Reverse osmosis can remove many types of dissolved and suspended species from water, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective", this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as solvent molecules) to pass freely.
  • In the normal osmosis process, the solvent naturally moves from an area of low solute concentration (high water potential), through a membrane, to an area of high solute concentration (low water potential).
  •  The driving force for the movement of the solvent is the reduction in the free energy of the system when the difference in solvent concentration on either side of a membrane is reduced, generating osmotic pressure due to the solvent moving into the more concentrated solution.
  • Applying an external pressure to reverse the natural flow of pure solvent, thus, is reverse osmosis. The process is similar to other membrane technology applications. However, key differences are found between reverse osmosis and filtration.
  • The predominant removal mechanism in membrane filtration is straining, or size exclusion, so the process can theoretically achieve perfect efficiency regardless of parameters such as the solution's pressure and concentration. Reverse osmosis also involves diffusion, making the process dependent on pressure, flow rate, and other conditions. Reverse osmosis is most commonly known for its use in drinking water purification from seawater, removing the salt and other effluent materials from the water molecules.
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Ahmedabad- 380060, Gujarat, India


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